SIMULTECH 2020 Abstracts


Area 1 - Simulation Tools and Platforms

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

Toolchain Development for Automated Scene Reconstruction using Artificial Neural Network Object Detection and Photogrammetry for the Application in Driving Simulators

Authors:

Maximilian Jarofka, Stephan Schweig, Niko Maas and Dieter Schramm

Abstract: This paper presents an automated process chain for the reconstruction of characteristic 3D objects, which can be used in a simulation environment. The process chain can distinguish between recurring objects such as trees and cars and specific objects like buildings. To acquire this, it detects and classifies objects in images from a previously recorded video. In contrast to the specific objects, which are reconstructed during the workflow of the process chain, the recurrent objects are loaded from already existing models and are placed multiple times into the simulation environment. In terms of quality a visual comparison between the two integrated programs for the reconstruction (Metashape and Meshroom) is carried out. Furthermore the accuracy of the positioning of standard objects in the Unity game engine is examined.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Architectures for Combining Discrete-event Simulation and Machine Learning

Authors:

Andrew Greasley

Abstract: A significant barrier to the combined use of simulation and machine learning (ML) is that practitioners in each area have differing backgrounds and use different tools. From a review of the literature this study presents five options for software architectures that combine simulation and machine learning. These architectures employ configurations of both simulation software and machine learning software and thus require skillsets in both areas. In order to further facilitate the combined use of these approaches this article presents a sixth option for a software architecture that uses a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) DES software to implement both the simulation and machine learning algorithms. A study is presented of this approach that incorporates the use of a type of ML termed reinforcement learning (RL) which in this example determines an approximate best route for a robot in a factory moving from one physical location to another whilst avoiding fixed barriers. The study shows that the use of an object approach to modelling of the COTS DES Simio enables an ML capability to be embedded within the DES without the use of a programming language or specialist ML software.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Simu5G: A System-level Simulator for 5G Networks

Authors:

Giovanni Nardini, Giovanni Stea, Antonio Virdis and Dario Sabella

Abstract: This paper presents Simu5G, a new OMNeT++-based system-level simulator of 5G networks. Simu5G is built starting from the SimuLTE simulation library, which models 4G (i.e., LTE/LTE-A) networks, and is compatible with the latter, thus allowing the simulation of 4G-5G coexistence and transition scenarios. We discuss the modelling of the protocol layers, network entities and functions, and validate our abstraction of the physical layer using 3GPP-based scenarios. Moreover, we report profiling results related to Simu5G execution, and we describe how it can be employed to evaluate Radio Access Network configurations, as well as end-to-end scenarios involving communication and computation, e.g., with Multi-access Edge Computing applications.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Simulation of near Infrared Sensor in Unity for Plant-weed Segmentation Classification

Authors:

Carlos Carbone, Ciro Potena and Daniele Nardi

Abstract: Weed spotting through image classification is one of the methods applied in precision agriculture to increase efficiency in crop damage reduction. These classifications are nowadays typically based on deep machine learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN), where a main difficulty is gathering large amounts of labeled data required for the training of these networks. Thus, synthetic dataset sources have been developed including simulations based on graphic engines; however, some data inputs that can improve the performance of CNNs like the near infrared (NIR) have not been considered in these simulations. This paper presents a simulation in the Unity game engine that builds fields of sugar beets with weeds. Images are generated to create datasets that are ready to train CNNs for semantic segmentation. The dataset is tested by comparing classification results from the bonnet CNN network trained with synthetic images and trained with real images, both with RGB and RGBN (RGB+near infrared) as inputs. The preliminary results suggest that the addition of the NIR channel to the simulation for plant-weed segmentation can be effectively exploited. These show a difference of 5.75% for the global mean IoU over 820 classified images by including the NIR data in the unity generated dataset.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

UniSim-Design Simulation and Analysis of a Sulphuric Acid Manufacturing Plant with Double Absorption Process

Authors:

Amine Mounaam, Yasser Harmen, Younes Chhiti, Ahmed Souissi, Mohamed Salouhi and Mohamed El Khouakhi

Abstract: In the sulphuric acid manufacturing industries, plant modelling and simulation is a challenging task to minimize emissions, maximize production performance and revenue. In this context, this study presents the steady behaviour of a double absorption process of an industrial sulphuric acid plant. The closed-loop process is modelled and simulated using UniSim Design R451 simulator and validated with plant data. The model includes principally: conversion reactor, plug flow reactors, absorbers, heat exchangers, pumps and compressors. The parameters of the converter kinetic were fitted to the real plant data, while the other parameters were estimated using conventional correlations. The results show a good agreement for the complete plant, with an accuracy that exceeds 97 %. Besides the optimization aspects, UniSim Design plant model is also useful for operator training, simulation of diverse scenarios and development of processes digital twin.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Adopting Technological Devices in Hospital at Home: A Modelling and Simulation Perspective

Authors:

Ilaria A. Amantea, Emilio Sulis, Guido Boella, Andrea Crespo, Dario Bianca, Enrico Brunetti, Renata Marinello, Marco Grosso, Jan-Christoph Zoels, Michele Visciola, Elena Guidorzi, Luisa Miolano, Giorgio Ratti, Tommaso Mazzoni, Ermes Zani and Serena Ambrosini

Abstract: This article introduces a framework to integrate Business Process Management and Simulation to e-Health solutions in the context of dehospitalization. Assistive technologies clearly have a direct and positive impact on the quality of life of patients, but they also improve the overall management of the organizational processes. In the framework of business process analysis, we introduce televisiting and telemedicine applications. In particular, we define modeling and simulation of hospital services as a base to investigate the role of technological innovations in order to explore the positive impact both on patient well-being as well as on business process management perspective.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 4
Title:

Characteristics-based Simulink Implementation of First-order Quasilinear Partial Differential Equations

Authors:

Anton Ponomarev, Julian Hofmann and Lutz Gröll

Abstract: The paper deals with solving first-order quasilinear partial differential equations in an online simulation environment, such as Simulink, utilizing the well-known and well-recommended method of characteristics. Compared to the commonly applied space discretization methods on static grids, the characteristics-based approach provides better numerical stability. Simulink subsystem implementing the method of characteristics is developed. It employs Simulink’s built-in solver and its zero-crossing detection algorithm to perform simultaneous integration of a pool of characteristics as well as to create new characteristics dynamically and discard the old ones. Numerical accuracy of the solution thus obtained is established. The subsystem has been tested on a full-state feedback example and produced better results than the space discretization-based “method of lines”. The implementation is available for download and can be used in a wide range of models.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Modeling and Simulation as a Service using Apache Kafka

Authors:

Moritz Gütlein and Anatoli Djanatliev

Abstract: Among other requirements, in the field of Modeling and Simulation there is a need to build and run (co-) simulation models on-demand. Setting up, orchestrating and executing simulations should be easy, while additional features such as interaction interfaces open up a variety of applications. Being able to connect external components seamlessly to a running simulation allows for elaborate experiments. This paper describes the architecture and design of a simulation platform that is a part of a broader platform enabling evaluations of future mobility scenarios. Apache’s Kafka platform for big data stream processing is used as a communication base in order to enable all these requirements, as well as for the coupling of different simulation tools forming a co-simulation. We give an overview of existing works regarding Modeling and Simulation as a Service, before explaining our own approach. Therefore, the architecture, the interfaces, and the workflow of a simulation run is described. The approach is illustrated by a case study, which is used to measure the service’s overhead.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Human Factors Assessment of Scenario-driven Training in Web-based Simulation

Authors:

Bharvi Chhaya, Shafagh Jafer and Stephen Rice

Abstract: Usability testing of products has commonly been used to test desktop applications, websites, online tools, and various types of learning platforms. This paper discusses usability and workload testing for a portable training simulation technology for Air Traffic Control (ATC) trainees. The NASA-TLX (Task Load Index) was developed for the purpose of measuring user subjective workload, and is useful for a variety of tasks, including online or computer-based training sessions such as the one being described in this paper. This multidimensional assessment tool rates users’ perceived workload, which is then correlated with other aspects of performance such as accuracy, speed, response times, etc. At the conclusion of the human factors experiment, the data indicated that participants found the simulation software to be relatively easy to learn and use, and did not experience high workload while using it.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Statistical Model Checking of Distributed Programs within SimGrid

Authors:

Marie Duflot-Kremer and Yann Duplouy

Abstract: In this paper, we present an approach to perform statistical model-checking over stochastic distributed programs using the SimGrid framework. The distributed programs are modeled using SimGrid, a fast and lightweight framework for the simulation of distributed programs, which we have enhanced in three ways: a cleaner description of the probabilistic evolution of the capacities of resources, a centralized random number generator, and a protocol for the observation of the simulations. We also propose a toolset for the statistical model-checking of those simulated distributed programs, and in particular a prototype tool SimGridStatMC. The toolset is illustrated to evaluate various properties of an implementation of the peer to peer BitTorrent protocol.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

A Cloud-based Collaboration Platform for Model-based Design of Cyber-Physical Systems

Authors:

Peter G. Larsen, Hugo D. Macedo, John Fitzgerald, Holger Pfeifer, Martin Benedikt, Stefano Tonetta, Angelo Marguglio, Sergio Gusmeroli and George Suciu Jr.

Abstract: Businesses, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises, aiming to start up in Model-Based Design (MBD) face difficult choices from a wide range of methods, notations and tools before making the significant investments in planning, procurement and training necessary to deploy new approaches successfully. In the development of Cyber-Physical Systems this is exacerbated by the diversity of formalisms covering computation, physical and human processes. In this paper, we propose the use of a cloud-enabled and open collaboration platform that allows businesses to offer models, tools and other assets, and permits others to access these on a pay-per-use basis as a means of lowering barriers to the adoption of MBD technology, and to promote experimentation in a sandbox environment.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

A Multi-domain Network Simulator based on NS-3

Authors:

Van T. Le, Nabil El Ioini, Hamid R. Barzegar and Claus Pahl

Abstract: With telecommunication technology development now moving to a different generation of wireless communication from 4G to 5G, user connections become faster and more reliable. However, from the view of application developers, there is still a testbed environment lacking to evaluate their systems reliability and performance. In this paper, we present an extension for the LTE module collaboration via roaming based on NS-3 simulator, which will provide an ecosystem for on-car service testing as a sample context. We also evaluate the model with specific metrics to check whether the model is adaptable to real-time processes.

Area 2 - Formal Methods

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

Investigation of the Dynamic Loads on Tower Cranes During Slewing Operations

Authors:

Manuel Stölzner, Michael Kleeberger, Marcel Moll and Johannes Fottner

Abstract: For decades, tower cranes have been the most important hoisting device used in building construction. In order to avoid security risks at the construction site, it is essential to analyse the dynamic behaviour of these cranes during the work process as the crane motions cause dynamic forces on the supporting structure. According to the current standards, stress calculations for tower cranes are carried out based on static approaches. The standards stipulate the use of special dynamic factors in the static calculation to estimate the dynamic loads. This article analyses the dynamic behaviour of a tower crane during the important work process of slewing. The results of the approach according to the standards are compared with the results of the nonlinear dynamic finite element calculation. In addition, a newly developed vibration model based on a two-mass model will be presented in this paper. The model helps to estimate the dynamic loads more accurately than the methods currently used. However, the computation time required to perform the stress calculation is only slightly increased.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 23
Title:

Modeling and Simulation of Long Boom Manipulator based on Geometrically Exact Beam Theory

Authors:

Lingchong Gao, Yingpeng Zhuo, Michael Kleeberger, Haijun Peng and Johannes Fottner

Abstract: The boom system of the aerial platform vehicle and the fire-rescue turntable ladder can be considered as a long boom manipulator. Due to the slenderness of the boom structure, there are always some vibrations occurring during the operation. In order to control the vibration, reliable dynamic modeling and simulation are necessary. In this paper, we propose a model of the long boom manipulator, especially the folding boom system, as a flexible-rigid coupled multi-body system. And the flexible long boom structure is formulated as a geometrically exact Euler-Bernoulli beam with hybrid interpolation for discretization. The governing equations of the system dynamics are established according to the principle of virtual power. A dynamic simulation of the spatial motion of the long boom manipulator is performed and the results are analyzed.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

Approaches to Parameter Identification for Hybrid Multilinear Time Invariant Systems

Authors:

Aadithyan Sridharan, Gerwald Lichtenberg, Antonio C. Salvador and Carlos V. Salgado

Abstract: Industrial buildings often have interacting continuous- and discrete-valued signals. Hybrid multilinear time invariant (MTI) models have been shown to be able to describe this hybrid dynamics appropriately for many cases. White box modelling methods from first principles have been used in this application domain before. The parameters of these models can be efficiently represented by higher order tensors. This paper introduces as alternatives black and grey box approaches for the parameter identification of MTI models from data. The methods are tested with the help of simulation data produced from a multilinear model of an industrial hall. It is assumed that all state variables are measured with additative noise and the input and disturbances are exactly measured, too. Two black box methods obtain either the full parameter tensor or a rank-r decomposition of it. Numerical examples using the industrial building model show the principle applicability of these approaches for real data.

Area 3 - Complex Systems Modeling and Simulation

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

A Malaria Control Model using Mobility Data: An Early Explanation of Kedougou Case in Senegal

Authors:

Lynda B. Khiri, Ibrahima Gueye, Hubert Naacke, Idrissa Sarr and Stéphane Gancarski

Abstract: Studies in malaria control cover many areas such as medicine, sociology, biology, mathematics, physics, computer science and so forth. Researches in the realm of mathematics are conducted to predict the occurrence of the disease and to support the eradication process. Basically, the modeling methodology is predominantly deterministic and based on differential equations which take into account important clinical and biological features. Yet, if the individual characteristics matter when modeling the disease, the overall estimation of the epidemic evolution relies on a non-specified percentage of the global population : it is not based on the state of health of each individual. The goal of this paper is to propose a model that relies on a daily evolution of the individual’s state, which depends on their mobility and the characteristics of the area they visit. Thus, the mobility data of a single person moving from one area to another, gathered thanks to mobile networks, is the essential building block to predict the disease outcome. We implement our solution and demonstrate its effectiveness through empirical experiments. The results show how promising the model is in providing possible insights into the failure of the disease control in the Kedougou region.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Method for Determining the Applicability of an Air Turbine for Operation in a Gas Turbine Engine Launch System

Authors:

Vasilii Zubanov, Grigorii Popov, Igor Egorov, Evgenii Marchukov and Yulia Novikova

Abstract: The paper describes the methodology developed by the authors for matching the working process of the auxiliary power unit and the air turbine used when starting the engine The need for this technique is caused by an extremely small number of publications on this topic. The developed technique can be used to determine the possibility of starting a gas turbine engine, as well as to calculate its time and main parameters under all operating conditions (including in flight) and to select new auxiliary power units or an air turbine for an existing system. The developed technique considers structural, strength, operational and other limitations. The results were implemented as a computer program.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Method for Improving Multi-stage Compressor Parameters using the IOSO Optimizer

Authors:

Evgenii Goriachkin, Grigorii Popov, Oleg Baturin, Valery Matveev and Andrei Volkov

Abstract: In the presented work, an algorithm was developed for finding the optimal configuration of the blades of multi-stage axial compressors using 3D CFD modeling as the main tool and using commercial optimization programs. When developing the algorithm, special attention was paid to the development of a method for parameterizing the shape of the blade and a program based on it, which allow you to automatically change the shape of the blade of the axial compressor. They were used by the authors during optimization as a tool that converts variable parameters into the “new” blade geometry. The created algorithm can be used to improve the basic parameters of the compressor (efficiency, pressure ratio, mass flow rate, etc.) due to the correction of the shape of the blade profiles and their position relative to each other. In this case, the algorithm considers the possible presence of various constraints.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Numerical Study of the Axial and Radial Forces, the Stresses and the Strains in a High Pressure Multistage Centrifugal Pump

Authors:

Mohand-Amokrane Abdelouahab, Guyh D. Ngoma, Fouad Erchiqui and Python Kabeya

Abstract: This paper deals with the numerical study of the axial and radial forces, the stresses and the strains induced by a liquid flow in a high pressure multistage centrifugal pump to improve their performances account for the material of the shaft and the impellers. Indeed, a model of a 4-stage centrifugal pump is developed considering a design point. The continuity and the Navier-Stokes equations are used for the liquid flow through the pump. Additionally, the equations of the stresses and the strains are applied for the shaft and the impellers. The obtained system of equations is solved by means of the CFX-code and the static structural analysis to determinate the fields of velocity and pressure, the axial and radial forces, the stress and the strain on the pump shaft. Moreover, numerical simulations are carried out to analyze the shaft behavior in terms of the induced axial and radial forces, the stresses and the strains. The diffuser in the last pump stage is used as parameter. Good trends are achieved comparing the obtained results with these found in the literature and these calculated using the classical equations of the stresses and the strains.

Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Optimization of a Single-stage Air Starter Turbine

Authors:

Grigorii Popov, Oleg Baturin, Vasilii Zubanov, Daria Kolmakova, Anastasia Korneeva and Andrei Volkov

Abstract: The paper describes the process of optimizing the blades of a starter air turbine for a gas turbine engine launch system. This task was initiated by the necessity to use an existing turbine when starting a new engine. During the study, it was found that the turbine, although it ensures the conditions for the joint operation with the auxiliary power unit turbine and meet the strength constraints, it does not allow to start the engine within the required time. As a result of studies using mathematical optimization methods involving commercial programs, a variant was found to modernize the baseline turbine, which provides an acceptable value of torque on the shaft with an adequate start-up time at all operating modes with minimal design changes.

Area 4 - Application Domains

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Blending Simulation and Machine Learning Models to Advance Energy Management in Large Ships

Authors:

Eirini Barri, Christos Bouras, Apostolos Gkamas, Nikos Karacapilidis, Dimitris Karadimas, Georgios Kournetas and Yiannis Panaretou

Abstract: The prediction of energy consumption in large passenger and cruise ships is certainly a complex and challenging issue. Towards addressing it, this paper reports on the development of a novel approach that builds on a sophisticated agent-based simulation model, which takes into account diverse parameters such as the size, type and behavior of the different categories of passengers onboard, the energy consuming facilities and devices of a ship, spatial data concerning the layout of a ship’s decks, and alternative ship operation modes. Outputs obtained from multiple simulation runs are then exploited by prominent Machine Learning algorithms to extract meaningful patterns between the composition of passengers and the corresponding energy demands in a ship. In this way, our approach is able to predict alternative energy consumption scenarios and trigger meaningful insights concerning the overall energy management in a ship. Overall, the proposed approach may handle the underlying uncertainty by blending the process-centric character of a simulation model and the data-centric character of Machine Learning algorithms.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

SDN based Network Traffic Routing in Vehicular Networks: A Scheme and Simulation Analysis

Authors:

Jitendra Bhatia, Mohammad S. Obaidat, Tirath Savasaiya, Hardik Trivedi, Sudeep Tanwar and Kuei-Fang Hsiao

Abstract: This paper focuses on exploiting the service architecture that exercises the Software-Defined Network (SDN) concept in heterogeneous vehicular networks for handling data traffic using optimal path selection and routing in the situation like congestion in Vehicle Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). In particular, we consider the scenario where a set of information is requested by a vehicular node from other vehicular nodes. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) have caught much attention in vehicular networks where decoupling of data and control plane enables the centralized control of the network; providing flexibility to a great extent. In this paper, we design an efficient network traffic routing algorithm assisted by SDN. Finally, we built a realistic traffic based simulation model. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol leveraged by the SDN framework outperforms the conventional network for data traffic management in terms of Round Trip Time (RTT) and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR).

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Proposal of a Troposphere Model in Simulation for Automotive Applications

Authors:

Angelo Arieta, Mauro Tropea and Danilo Amendola

Abstract: The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide global coverage and it includes GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and other regional satellite navigational systems. The use of simulator for performing different kinds of test is a practice largely used that provides many advantages in different navigation systems thanks to the possibility of performing tests under controlled and repeatable conditions in a secure laboratory. The use of GPS simulation is largely used for testing GPS receivers. This paper presents a GNSS simulator for automotive applications, in particular the software used is GPS-SDR-SIM, an open source simulator written in C language and it proposes a simulator improvement providing the implementation of the Troposphere Collins model in order to improve the accuracy of the simulation experiments.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

Proposal of an Automotive Collision Avoidance System based on Edge Computing

Authors:

Nicolas Nevigato, Mauro Tropea and Floriano De Rango

Abstract: Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) is a network architecture that enables cloud computing capabilities and an IT service environment at the edge of the cellular network and, more in general at the edge of any network. It is often used in safety-critical and mission-critical communications as it is able to guarantee low latency and high bandwidth. It takes advantage of container-based virtualization and in collaboration with 5G cellular networks, it is a key enabler for the deployment of vehicular use cases, such as the improvement of road safety. This paper presents the implementation of a collision avoidance system based on MEC, with the ability to switch communication to a cloud server when possible, trying to guarantee the required constraints and balancing the communication among the servers avoiding of overloading edge layer. The simulation results have proved how in some cases the MEC-5G combination is the best one for the system in order to avoid collisions on the road.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Structured Planning of Hardware and Software Co-simulation Testing of Smart Grids

Authors:

Rami Elshinawy, Rebeca R. Acosta, Jan S. Schwarz and Sebastian Lehnhoff

Abstract: The traditional electricity grid is ought to become a smart grid. One reason is the integration of volatile renewable energy generation, which poses the demand for advanced communication and control technology. This results in a change of the overall system dynamics, which in turn require testing to be done in early stages and with a more holistic approach. However, there is a gap in the transition from system specification and static analysis to an experimental setup validating these specification. This paper demonstrates first steps towards a structured methodology for deriving validation experiments for smart grids from initial system requirements. Our approach aims to fill the introduced gap by integrating Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) for static analysis, Holistic Testing Description (HTD) for experimental analysis, and additional tools in a new workflow. Initial assessment of the workflow has been validated on its ability to select the most suitable components and test beds to perform an experiment. Therefore, two case studies were selected, one in the electricity power domain and another in the electricity market domain.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Evaluation of Alternative Propulsion Concepts for Mobile Machinery: A Modelling Approach using the Example on LNG-powered Port Handling Equipment

Authors:

Patrick Driesch, Kai Horwat, Niko Maas and Dieter Schramm

Abstract: The prevailing climate goals and related emission limits for fleets are forcing industry to consider alternative fuels alongside established fuels such as diesel and gasoline. A conversion of a fleet of vehicles to another source of power comes along with an investment of money and a risk that the day-to-day operations of the new drive technology do not provide the expected effects regarding the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas emissions. In order to assess these barriers in advance, this paper presents an approach of a simulation tool based on a semi-physical modelling of the powertrain of mobile machinery to predict the impact of a conversion of a fleet from diesel to liquefied natural gas (LNG) in case of fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. For the semi-physical model, a combination of a physical model of the vehicle and powertrain dynamics and a black box modelling of the internal combustion engine by artificial neural networks is chosen. The simulation tool will be used in the future to assess the feasibility of converting the drive system from port transhipment facilities to LNG. The work was carried out as part of the research project LeanDeR financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Combat Simulation to Support the Conceptual Design of Equipment for the Soldier System

Authors:

Vikram Mittal, Graham Webb, Jackson Steiner, Luke Shriver and Sierra Butcher

Abstract: Simulation will play an increasingly important role in designing future equipment for soldiers. The complex operational environment necessitates that the soldier be treated as a system. A soldier system can be defined as a soldier using equipment to complete a mission. Though it is often difficult to capture the mission aspect of the system, constructive combat simulation provides a technique for testing out new equipment on a soldier early in the system design lifecycle. Though combat simulations have historically been used primarily for training purposes, they can be readily modified for analysis of new military capabilities. Additionally, these simulations can be modified to reflect the changes in physical and cognitive load associated with these new capabilities. This paper outlines a methodology for using combat simulation to perform analysis of new capabilities for the soldier system. A case study is then presented to perform a trade space analysis on different tactical-cyber capabilities given to dismounted soldiers. Using the Infantry Warrior Simulation (IWARS), the case study quantified changes in soldier survivability and lethality with the addition of new technologies.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

The Importance of Robust and Reliable Energy Prediction Models: Next Generation of Smart Meters

Authors:

Sergio Jurado, Àngela Nebot and Francisco Mugica

Abstract: In this position paper a discussion is performed related to the importance of Energy Prediction Models (EPM) in the context of trading renewable energy in smart grids and the need to develop a new generation of Smart Meters (SMs) based on edge computing. If the electricity currently produced and consumed in the low voltage is expected to grow due to installations of PVs and the electrification of the system, we need to incentivise local energy trading and provide tools to make it possible. Currently, all energy trading mechanisms in the literature heavily rely on predictions, therefore, inaccuracy would be translated in low profitability of prosumer’s investments or even worse, disappointment with the local energy markets. To guarantee robustness and reliability of predictions, we propose Flexible FIR as EPM to be used during the trading process and to integrate them in a Next Generation of SMs (NGSMs). In this document some reflections about new functionalities of NGSMs and first steps of a prototype are also addressed.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

Influence and Evaluation of Potential Fractured Zone by Surrounding Rockmass Deformation during Deep Tunneling Blasting Excavation

Authors:

Jixue Zhou, Junhong Huang, Yi luo and Xinping Li

Abstract: Daliang tunnel on Lanzhou-Xinjiang high-speed railway is a typical tunneling project with adverse geological conditions, especially fractured zones during blasting excavation. A major collapse disaster was caused due to an unexpected fractured zone, which was excavated and supported improperly. Field test data of surrounding rockmass displacement is analyzed for changes alone tunnel axis and with time. Deformation curve versus time for tunnel sections with surrounding rockmass in consistent and relatively high integrity shows one inflection point, where deformation rate changes from increase to decrease. It revealed by numerical analysis that before exposed by blasting excavation, rockmass near fractured zone has shown much deformation. Inflection point can always by observed on the total deformation curve, while it appears earlier when nearer to the fractured zone. When the inclination angle of the fractured zone is small, the location of inflection point on deformation-time curve is more sensitive to the change of inclination angle. Existence of a fractured zone in vicinity ahead can be evaluated for choosing proper blasting excavation and support method.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Evolution of Robotic Simulators: Using UE 4 to Enable Real-World Quality Testing of Complex Autonomous Robots in Unstructured Environments

Authors:

Patrick Wolf, Tobias Groll, Steffen Hemer and Karsten Berns

Abstract: Robotic simulators are essential for control development since they allow early testing. Additionally, trial time is tremendously reduced in comparison to a real system. In the recent past, many powerful simulation systems emerged, offering a high quality and level of realism. Still, those simulators have some shortcomings concerning the development of complex commercial vehicles that regularly operate within extremely cluttered and unstructured environments. This paper aims to reduce the gap occurring during the simulation and real-world testing to increase the expressiveness of robot control software tests.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

Implementation and Simulation of Handover Techniques to Guarantee Service Continuity through Microservices at Edge

Authors:

Luigi Bitonti and Mauro Tropea

Abstract: Edge computing is a mesh network of micro data centers, capable of processing and storing critical data locally, and of transmitting all data received and / or processed to a central data center or to a cloud storage repository. With this paradigm, data, applications and computational services are brought from the cloud servers to the margins of the network. To divide their computational power, virtual hosts are distributed within a single physical host through virtualization. One of the virtualization techniques that is spreading is containerized programming. In this paper, the concepts just mentioned will be applied to a use case, to ensuring continuity of service to vehicles traveling on a fast-moving road and which are managed by Edge technology. Two handover algorithms supported by microservices at Edge are proposed and performance assessed.