SIMULTECH 2017 Abstracts


Area 1 - Simulation Tools and Platforms

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Mixed Fluid and Rigid Body Simulations - An Object Oriented Component Library based on the Physolator Framework

Authors:

Waldemar Rose and Dirk Eisenbiegler

Abstract: This paper presents an approach towards implementing physical simulations, where the physical system consists of both fluids and movable rigid bodies. The approach is based on Physolator. Physolator is an object oriented Java based framework for physical simulation. This paper introduces a library of Java classes that are designed for building such simulations. The classes are designed to be used inside the Physolator framework.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Distributed Co-Simulation of Embedded Control Software with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Water Handling System using INTO-CPS

Authors:

Nicolai Pedersen, Kenneth Lausdahl, Enrique Vidal Sanchez, Peter Gorm Larsen and Jan Madsen

Abstract: Engineering complex Cyber-Physical Systems, such as emission reduction control systems for large two-stroke engines, require advanced modelling of both the cyber and physical aspects. Different tools are specialised for each of these domains and a combination of tools validating different properties is often desirable. However, it is non-trivial to be able to combine such different models of different constituent elements. In order to reduce the need for expensive tests on the real system it is advantageous to be able to combine such heterogeneous models in a joint co-simulation in order to reduce the overall costs of validation. This paper demonstrates how this can be achieved for a commercial system developed by MAN Diesel & Turbo using a newly developed tool chain based on the Functional Mock-up Interface standard for co-simulation supporting different operating systems. The generality of the suggested approach also enables future scenarios incorporating constituent models supplied by sub-suppliers while protecting their Intellectual Property.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Dynamic Modelling of Commercial Aircraft Secondary Flight Control Systems

Authors:

Graham Hardwick and Isabella Panella

Abstract: This paper describes the use of mathematical modelling within secondary flight control systems for commercial aircraft. The modelling process is described from generation of model requirements, model management through to model validation. The paper describes an example of a parametrised high-lift system model developed in Simulink. Analyses of the model outputs are provided and a sensitivity analysis is performed on a selected design parameter. This work highlights the advantages of integrated modelling to support the conceptual design phase within the lifecycle system design process.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Simulation of Copper Thin Film Thickness Optimization for Surface Plasmon using the Finite Element Method

Authors:

Tanaporn Leelawattananon, Kritsakorn Lorchalearnrat and Suphamit Chittayasothorn

Abstract: This paper presents computer simulation of optical activations based on the Kretschmann configuration using a prism for the observation of the surface plasmon wave. This is according to the condition of the dispersion relation. The analysis of the electric field of the surface plasmon wave which appears at the interface between the metal layer and the air layer is done by using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The simulation is performed using the COMSOL Multiphysics software which supports the FEM. The objective of our experiment is to find the most suitable thickness of the metal thin film which is most suitable for the surface plasmon excitation when activated by 632.5 nm red laser light source. The red laser light source is commonly available and also very economical. The metal used in our work is copper which is an economical noble metal and gives better conductivity than gold. The findings from the simulation will be used in the future high precision physical experiments. The outcome of this research project, the surface plasmon wave on copper thin film, is expected to be used in bio-molecular detectors or high speed THz communications.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Maximising Patient Throughput using Discrete-event Simulation

Authors:

Fraser L. Greenroyd, Rebecca Hayward, Andrew Price, Peter Demian and Shrikant Sharma

Abstract: As the National Health Service (NHS) of England continues to face tighter cost saving and utilisation government set targets, finding the optimum between costs, patient waiting times, utilisation of resources, and user satisfaction is increasingly challenging. Patient scheduling is a subject which has been extensively covered in the literature, with many previous studies offering solutions to optimise the patient schedule for a given metric. However, few analyse a large range of metrics pertinent to the NHS. The tool presented in this paper provides a discrete-event simulation tool for analysing a range of patient schedules across nine metrics, including: patient waiting, clinic room utilisation, waiting room utilisation, staff hub utilisation, clinician utilisation, patient facing time, clinic over-run, post-clinic waiting, and post-clinic patients still being examined. This allows clinic managers to analyse a number of scheduling solutions to find the optimum schedule for their department by comparing the metrics and selecting their preferred schedule. Also provided is an analysis of the impact of variations in appointment durations and their impact on how a simulation tool provides results. This analysis highlights the need for multiple simulation runs to reduce the impact of non-representative results from the final schedule analysis.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

A Novel Approach for Handling Discontinuities in Non-iterative Co-simulation

Authors:

Daniela Dejaco and Martin Benedikt

Abstract: In this work, a novel approach for the co-simulation of systems with discontinuities is presented. Currently, an extensive literature exists on the simulation of distributed systems as well as on the proper discontinuity handling during simulation. The not trivial task is to design a simulation platform that is able to do both at the same time. The proposed algorithm, which extends an existing non-iterative co-simulation strategy, administrates the mutual communication between two subsystems to assure that events are propagated correctly within the distributed system. Based on a prediction of future event triggering, the co-simulation sequence is chosen and thus the discontinuities are handled with no need of "rolling-back'' or of iterating. A simulation example demonstrates the efficiency of the outlined algorithm.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

UAVs Team and Its Application in Agriculture: A Simulation Environment

Authors:

Floriano De Rango, Nunzia Palmieri, Mauro Tropea and Giuseppe Potrino

Abstract: The work proposes a simulation environment for UAVs management in the agriculture domain. In these last years, new technologies can effectively support farmer to face issues and threats such as parasites and sudden climatic changes that can severely degrade the crop or the quality of the cultivated products. However, to properly manage a UAVs team, equipped with multiple sensors and actuators, it is necessary to test these technologies in order to plan specific strategies and coordination techniques able to efficiently support farmers and achieve the targets. At this purpose, this contribution proposes a simulator suitable for the agriculture domain, where it is possible to set many parameters of this domain of interest.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

Blood Flow and Pressure Change Simulation in the Aorta with the Model Generated from CT Data

Authors:

Nobuhiko Mukai, Yuhei Okamoto, Kazuhiro Aoyama and Youngha Chang

Abstract: We have performed the blood flow and the pressure change simulation in the aorta with the model generated from CT (Computerized Tomography) data. There have been some previous researches related to the aortic valve and the blood flow in the aorta. Some works simulated the aortic valve behavior with artificial models, and others investigated the blood flow in the aorta with models generated from MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) data. In this paper, we demonstrate the simulation of the blood flow and the pressure change in the aorta with a model generated from CT data, which model includes not only the aorta but also the left ventricle. In the simulation, blood flows into the left ventricle through the mitral valve, the pressure increases according to the blood flow that moves into the left ventricle through the mitral valve, and the aortic valve opens by the pressure increase in the left ventricle. Finally, we have confirmed that the pressure change in the left ventricle corresponds to a literature value.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

Investigation of Three Immiscible Fluids in a Microchannel Accounting for the Pressure Gradient and the Electroosmotic Flow

Authors:

Nicolas La Roche-Carrier, Guyh Dituba Ngoma, Fouad Erchiqui and Ibrahim Hamani

Abstract: This study deals with the investigation of three immiscible fluids in a microchannel consisting of two parallel plates. These fluids were composed of two electric conducting fluids and one electric nonconducting fluid. The concept of pumping a nonconducting fluid using interfacial viscous shear stress was applied accounting for the effect of the electroosmosis and pressure gradient. The electric potential and the flow parameters were found resolving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the modified Navier-Stokes equations for a hydraulic steady fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible fluid. The results achieved revealed the influence of the wall and interfacial zeta potentials, the pressure difference, and the dynamic fluid viscosity ratio on the flow characteristics of the three immiscible fluids. The developed approach was compared with a model of two immiscible flows to highlight the relevance of this work.

Posters
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Novel Approach of Deriving Operational Procedures for a Complex Research Facility

Authors:

Nicolae Emanuel Marinică and Dragoș Dumitrescu

Abstract: Operational procedures represent a set of step-by-step actions on how to execute a complex task in which safety plays the main role. Operational safety is employed for the protection of human operators and also of the system components that may be very expensive and sensitive to malfunctions. Therefore, an automatic method to generate and better understand the effects of the procedures over an entire plant is needed. For this endeavour, each sub-system is modelled as a Finite State Process (FSP). The Modal Transition System Analyser (MTSA) tool is used to generate and simulate a procedure for a given system behaviour and a set of constraints. The presented plant model represents only a proof of concept and can be easily extended to include further details of real systems.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

A New Switched Beam Smart Antenna Model for Extending Inet Omnet++ Framework

Authors:

Vincenzo Inzillo, Floriano De Rango and Alfonso Ariza Quintana

Abstract: Smart Antenna Systems (SAS) are providing a strong increasing impact in digital wireless communication systems. Due to their great advantages regarding nodes power saving and coverage enhancing, SAS are largely employed on pervasive network environments such as MANET. Because almost the whole of existing network simulators use omnidirectional antennas on nodes, we propose a new version of Inet framework of Omnet++ that extends its operation also for network scenarios in which nodes are equipped with directional antennas. Furthermore, we created a new directional antenna module that simulates the behaviour of a Phased Array System and a very simple algorithm for power management in channel. The new proposed model presents some modifications to key-modules that are involved in a normal wireless communication scenario, in order to support asymmetrical communications between nodes.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

A Semantic Web Engine for Biorefining Model Integration

Authors:

Edlira Kalemi, Linsey Koo and Franjo Cecelja

Abstract: The number of models available to the biorefining community is continuously increasing, there is a need to provide better ways for their description, categorization, discovery and integration in order to improve reusability of them. Biorefining models on the other hand are developed using heterogeneous methods, data format and various environments that makes their reuse challenging. In this paper, we describe a semantic web engine for the domain of biorefining, which enhances the description of biorefining model by using semantic web technologies in order to facilitate discovery and integration. In particular, we present how domain and web service ontologies are used in semantic mapping for the purpose of model integration, which is achieved by OWL-S (Semantic Markup for Web Services). Whilst the application has been designed and implemented for a specific domain, this novel design can be applicable to similar problems in other domains.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

Considerations on 2D-Bin Packing Problem: Is the Order of Placement a Relevant Factor?

Authors:

Gia Thuan Lam, Viet Anh Ho and Doina Logofatu

Abstract: The problem of packing a given sequence of items of 2-dimensional (2D) geometric shapes into a minimum number of rectangle bins of given dimensions is called the 2D bin packing problem. This problem has various applications across many industries such as steel-, paper- and wood- industries where objects of certain shapes are needed to be cut from large rectangle panels with the most efficient use of materials. This problem, however, belongs to the class of NP-Hard problems, implying that no perfect solution exists. Many proposed solutions involve the use of advanced metaheuristic search techniques such as Local Search, Simulated Annealing or Genetic Algorithm, but most of them are still greedy-based, which means some greedy technique such as First-Fit is still used as their core placement algorithm and optimization techniques are employed only to search for a good ordering or orientation (rotation angles) of the objects so that the placement procedure can yield the best possible results. Practice has shown that greedy placement algorithm on the simple area decreasing order can produce excellent results comparable to those on orderings generated from advanced optimization techniques. This paper discusses the relevance of the order of placement in the 2D bin packing problem.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

Designing Fingers in Simulation based on Imprints

Authors:

Lukas Christoffer Malte Wiuf Schwartz, Adam Wolniakowski, Andrzej Werner, Lars-Peter Ellekilde and Norbert Krüger

Abstract: Gripper design is nowadays an area of ongoing research activity. The problem of creating a generic and automated gripper design approach tailored for a specific task is still far from solved. In this paper, we propose a new method of generating finger cut-outs aimed at simplifying the design process of doing so. This method takes root in the idea of using the imprint to produce the finger geometry. We furthermore provide a verification of our newly introduced imprinting method and a comparison to the previously introduced parametrized geometry method. This verification is done through a set of grasping experiments performed in simulation on two objects with geometry features based on those found in industrial setting.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

First-hop Redundancy Protocols in Omnet++

Authors:

Vladimír Veselý, Jan Holuša and Ondřej Ryšavý

Abstract: The high-availability comprises a critical feature of any enterprise local area or data-center network. Because of the importance of high-availability, network designers and administrators expect support from tools aiding to deliver the correct configuration. Simulation is widely accepted approach for testing network design and configuration helping to reveal possible issues in functionality and performance. OMNeT++ simulator provides INET framework offering models of Internet devices, protocols and mechanisms. This paper presents an extension of INET framework with two high-availability protocols, namely, HSRP and GLBP. This extension enables to accurately simulate scenarios with default-gateway redundancy features, which was not easily possible before. In the paper, we briefly overview the basic concepts of these protocols, describe the design of simulation models and present verification and validation results.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Hierarchical Petri Net Simulator: Simulation, Design Validation, and Model Checking Tool for Hierarchical Place/Transition Petri Nets

Authors:

Yojiro Harie and Katsumi Wasaki

Abstract: This paper introduces the Hierarchical Petri net Simulator (HiPS), a Petri net design tool implemented using C# and C++, the .NET Framework, and an interprocess communication channel. HiPS supports hierarchical modeling and can analyze the dynamic and structural properties of a Petri net by generating state spaces. The state space generation engine in HiPS provides a memory-saving technique and high-speed execution. We have devised an Extended Coverability Graph (ECG) mechanism for liveness and persistence properties to accurately maintain transition information. In this paper, we extend HiPS to include a liveness analyzer that utilizes the ECG mechanism and an on-the-fly model checker for event-based systems. We also describe an algorithm that generates state spaces by multi-threading. Furthermore, we propose priority firing estimation with on-the-fly model checking for Linear Temporal Logic (LTL).

Area 2 - Formal Methods

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Fault Detection for Heating Systems using Tensor Decompositions of Multi-linear Models

Authors:

Erik Sewe, Georg Pangalos and Gerwald Lichtenberg

Abstract: A model-based fault detection method for heating systems is proposed. Two examples of heating system units are under investigation. These systems can be represented as multi-linear systems. Subspace identification methods are used to identify linear time-invariant models for each operating regime, resulting in a parameter tensor. In case of missing data and models for some operating regimes, an approximation method is proposed, where the canonical polyadic tensor decomposition method is used. Low rank approximations are found using an algorithm specialized for incomplete tensors. The tensor of these approximations defines the models in operating regimes, where no measurements were available. Fault detection is done using parity equations and application examples using real measurement data of a heat generation unit are given.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Modelling the Formation of Virtual Buying Cooperatives with Grammars of Regulated Rewriting

Authors:

Suna Bensch, Sigrid Ewert and Mpho Raborife

Abstract: In this paper we model virtual buying cooperatives (VBC) with grammars of regulated rewriting and show that, if VBC relevant information is distributed over several successive VBC processes and must, in a later stage, be synchronised and co-ordinated, the formal grammar needs to be very powerful with respect to mode of derivation and thus generative capacity. In particular, we show how to model the supplier phase, invitation phase, and declaration phase of a VBC with random permitting context grammars and the VBC reservation phase with random context grammars under a special kind of leftmost derivation. If we use random permitting context grammars for all processes, we can only model a VBC formation during which information is introduced and processed locally and successively rather than being spread over different VBC processes.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Analysing Dynamical Systems - Towards Computing Complete Lyapunov Functions

Authors:

Carlos Argáez, Sigurdur Hafstein and Peter Giesl

Abstract: Ordinary differential equations arise in a variety of applications, including e.g. climate systems, and can exhibit complicated dynamical behaviour. Complete Lyapunov functions can capture this behaviour by dividing the phase space into the chain-recurrent set, determining the long-time behaviour, and the transient part, where solutions pass through. In this paper, we present an algorithm to construct complete Lyapunov functions. It is based on mesh-free numerical approximation and uses the failure of convergence in certain areas to determine the chain-recurrent set. The algorithm is applied to three examples and is able to determine attractors and repellers, including periodic orbits and homoclinic orbits.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Stochastic Simulation of Non-stationary Meteorological Time-series - Daily Precipitation Indicators, Maximum and Minimum Air Temperature Simulation using Latent and Transformed Gaussian Processes

Authors:

Nina Kargapolova

Abstract: In this paper a stochastic parametric simulation model that provides daily values for precipitation indicators, maximum and minimum temperature at a single site on a yearlong time-interval is presented. The model is constructed on the assumption that these weather elements are non-stationary random processes and their one-dimensional distributions vary from day to day. A latent Gaussian process and its threshold transformation are used for simulation of precipitation indicators. Parameters of the model (parameters of one-dimensional distributions, auto- and cross-correlation functions) are chosen for each location on the basis of real data from a weather station situated in this location. Several examples of model applications are given. It is shown that simulated data may be used for estimation of probability of extreme weather events occurrence (e.g. sharp temperature drops, extended periods of high temperature and precipitation absence).

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

A Modular Approach for Parallel Simulation of Virtual Testbed Applications

Authors:

Arthur Wahl, Ralf Waspe, Michael Schluse and Juergen Rossmann

Abstract: Virtual Testbeds are advanced 3D simulation environments that model all relevant aspects of complex technical systems, to enable their systematic evaluation by engineers from various disciplines. Due to the high complexity of the resulting simulation, real-time capabilities are very hard to achieve without applying multi-threading strategies. Therefore, we present a novel, simulation architecture that facilitates a modular approach to perform parallel simulations of arbitrary environments without further effort. Specifically, no explicit knowledge of the underlying simulation algorithms or model partitioning is needed. As a result, engineers can simply distribute simulation components such as rigid-body dynamics, kinematics, renderer, controllers etc. among different threads without being concerned about the specific technical realization. We achieve this by managing (partial) copies of the state data underlying the simulation models. Each copy acts as a self-contained, independent entity and is bound to one thread.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

A Simulation–based Optimization Approach for Stochastic Yard Crane Scheduling Problem with Crane Mobility Constraints

Authors:

Frobin M. Mnale, Mohamed S. Gheith and Amr B. Eltawil

Abstract: With the fast-paced growth in containerized trade market the need for effective and efficient operations at container terminals is a critical factor in freight transport. One major contributing factor of terminal efficiency is the productivity of Yard Cranes (YC) resulting from YC scheduling. In this paper, the stochastic YC Scheduling Problem (YCSP) is presented aspiring to provide a new yard cranes analysis through operational attributes of the container handling process. A stochastic mixed integer programming model is proposed, and a simulation-based optimization procedure introduced to build YC schedules that account for the dynamic and uncertainty nature of container handling process in container terminals.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Self-assessment as Cybernetics Mechanism for QoS Adaptation in Networked Systems

Authors:

Kaliappa Ravindran, Yassine Wardei and Steven Drager

Abstract: The paper formulates methods to measure the trustworthiness of a network system S under hostile environment conditions incident on "S". How good is the system "S" in meeting the QoS expectations of applications (i.e., the QoS capability of "S") is quantitatively measured — say, on a [0, 1] scale. We employ model-based assessment tools (e.g., PO-MDP) to benchmark the QoS capability by stress-testing "S" with artificially injected failure conditions. As a case study, we describe the model-based assessment of the performance and security of a CDN (content distribution network). The study focuses on the optimal placement of content caching nodes in a distribution topology under performance and security induced constraints.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

Computing Path Bundles in Bipartite Networks

Authors:

Victor Parque, Satoshi Miura and Tomoyuki Miyashita

Abstract: Path bundling, a class of path planning problem, consists of compounding multiple routes to minimize a global distance metric. Naturally, a tree-like structure is obtained as a result wherein roots play the role of coordinating the joint transport of information, goods, and people. In this paper we tackle the path bundling problem in bipartite networks by using gradient-free optimization and a convex representation. Then, by using 7,500 computational experiments in diverse scenarios with and without obstacles, implying 7.5 billion shortest path computations, show the feasibility and efficiency of the mesh adaptive search.

Posters
Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Research on Knowledge Network Modelling for Aero-craft System Design

Authors:

Xiang Zhai, Feng Dai, Huiyang Qu, Lingling Zhong and Chenyong Du

Abstract: A great amount of existing knowledge is required during the development of aero-craft system. At present, the existing knowledge organization model construct different knowledge model for different stages is difficult to adapt to the complicated product life cycle application. This study proposes a product development oriented knowledge network model focusing on expressing the knowledge demands and connecting the computer-aided system. Under the overall knowledge network model, this study describes the ontology description method of spacecraft product model, development tasks and aerospace terminology. Recommending missile aerodynamic knowledge within the design stage is presented as a case study, and the framework and the method is proved to be effective.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Wendland Functions - A C++ Code to Compute Them

Authors:

Carlos Argáez, Sigurdur Hafstein and Peter Giesl

Abstract: In this paper we present a code in C++ to compute Wendland functions for arbitrary smoothness parameters. Wendland functions are compactly supported Radial Basis Functions that are used for interpolation of data or solving Partial Differential Equations with mesh-free collocation. For the computations of Lyapunov functions using Wendland functions their derivatives are also needed so we include this in the code. Wendland functions with a few fixed smoothness parameters are included in some C++ libraries, but for the general case the only code freely available was implemented in MAPLE taking advantage of the computer algebra system. The aim of this contribution is to allow scientists to use Wendland functions in their C++ code without having to implement them themselves. The computed Wendland functions are polynomials and their coefficients are computed and stored in a vector, which allows for efficient computation of their values using the Horner scheme.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

FTP Algebraic Formal Modelling using ACP - Study on FTP Active Mode and Passive Mode

Authors:

Pedro Juan Roig, Salvador Alcaraz and Katja Gilly

Abstract: FTP is a well-known network protocol aimed at transferring computer files between two end devices, following a client-server approach. In this paper, we are focusing on getting a formal description model for both FTP modes, namely active and passive, by using manual algebraic derivations related to Algebra of Communicating Processes (ACP) as a tool for achieving such a formal protocol specification. For that purpose, the most commonly used FTP commands are going to be studied by applying ACP rules, proving that the model proposed meet the expected behaviour of FTP sessions.

Area 3 - Complex Systems Modeling and Simulation

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 27
Title:

SystemC Test Case Generation with the Gazebo Simulator

Authors:

Thomas W. Pieber, Thomas Ulz and Christian Steger

Abstract: The current approach of hardware simulators are testbeds that supply the Device under Test (DUT) with inputs. These sequences of inputs are the result of engineers reverse engineering the use cases extracting the inputs from them and adding some extreme cases. This paper describes an approach where the input sequences are generated directly from the use case itself. The use case is therefore simulated in an environmental simulator such as Gazebo. This generates the stimuli for the DUT. To facilitate the compatibility between the different simulation environments we present an easy-to-use and easy-to-implement communication strategy.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Implementing a New Approach for Bidirectional Interaction between a Real-time Capable Overall System Simulation and Structural Simulations - Completion of the Virtual Testbed with Finite Element Analysis

Authors:

Dorit Kaufmann, Malte Rast and Jürgen Roßmann

Abstract: Modern technical systems consist of various different components acting together. Robotics is a sophisticated example, as mechanical and electrical components interact with the environment. With size and complexity of the system, the susceptibility to errors rises, when the interaction between components fails. Often this happens if a component shows minimal changes to the nominal function. The structural behaviour of a single component is therefore as crucial for the functionality of the whole system as the interaction of all components. Although sophisticated Overall System Simulations exist and create powerful Virtual Testbeds, structural influences are neglected. As the underlying models differ, structural simulations are used as a stand-alone tool and their results are barely considered in the overall picture. In this work an interface was implemented, which is capable to integrate structural simulation automatically into a Virtual Testbed framework.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

Resource Flow based Order Selection Method in Project Cost Estimation Process

Authors:

Nobuaki Ishii, Yuichi Takano and Masaaki Muraki

Abstract: Since the project price is fixed in EPC (Engineering, Procurement, and Construction) projects, the contractor should devote significant resources to the cost estimation process to realize the accurate cost estimation and then accept profitable projects from clients in competitive bidding situations. However, it is impossible for any contractor to devote sufficient resources to all the orders because of the resource constraints. In this study, a multistage project cost estimation process model, consisting of pre-evaluation, order selection, man-hour allocation, and a series of cost estimation steps, is developed. Then, this study devises a resource flow based order selection method and man-hour allocation method to provide successful results to clients and to maximize the contractor’s profits under the limited resources. Specifically, those methods dynamically select orders to estimate cost at each order arrival and allocate the resources to the selected orders, respectively. The effectiveness of our method is demonstrated through simulation experiments using the developed model.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 72
Title:

Efficient Algorithms for Simplicial Complexes Used in the Computation of Lyapunov Functions for Nonlinear Systems

Authors:

Sigurdur Freyr Hafstein

Abstract: Several algorithms have been suggested to parameterize continuous and piecewise affine Lyapunov functions for nonlinear systems in various settings. In these algorithms linear constraints are formulated for the values of a Lyapunov function at all vertices of a simplicial complex. They are then either solved using convex optimization or computed by other means and then verified. Originally these algorithms were designed for continuous-time systems and their adaptation to discrete-time systems and control systems poses some challenges in designing and implementing efficient algorithms and data structures for simplicial complexes. In this paper we discuss several of these and give efficient implementations in C++

Posters
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Mathematical Modeling of the Ethno-social Conflicts by Non-linear Dynamics

Authors:

Alexandr Y. Petukhov, Alexey O. Malhanov, Vladimir M. Sandalov and Yury V. Petukhov

Abstract: The issue of modeling various kinds of social conflicts (including ethno-social) using diffusion equations is discussed. The main approaches to and methods of mathematical modeling in contemporary humanitarian sciences. The main concepts of social conflicts, ways of their classification, interpretation, including ethnic-social, religious and other conflicts are considered. The notion of a conflict in a social system is defined in terms of mathematical modeling. A model based on Langevin diffusion equation is introduced. The model is based on the idea that all individuals in a society interact by means of a communication field - h. This field is induced by each individual in the society, modeling informational interaction between individuals. An analytical solution of the system of thus obtained equations in the first approximation for a diverging type of diffusion is given. It is shown that even analyzing a simple example of the interaction of two groups of individuals the developed model makes it possible to discover characteristic laws of a conflict in a social system, to determine the effect of social distance in a society on the conditions of generation of such processes, accounting for external effects or a random factor. Based on the analysis of the phase portraits obtained by modeling, it is concluded that there exists a stability region within which the social system is stable and non-conflictive.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

A Simulation Model for Integrating Multidisciplinary Knowledge in Natural Sciences - Heuristic and Application to Wild Rodent Studies

Authors:

Jean Le Fur, Pape A. Mboup and Moussa Sall

Abstract: Knowledge about rodents has been obtained at multiple observation scales and covers many functional levels, from DNA to ecosystems. We have developed an object/agent-oriented simulation model to represent these elements and phenomena in an integrated manner. Given the diversity of domains, items, processes and scales to be considered, we used an incremental approach to model development, with contrasting case studies successively represented and connected within the same model. Each study enriches the model and benefits from previous developments. The results emerging from this compilation are reflected into a shared class tree composed of three broad domains of variability: (i) concrete agents, (ii) specific genomes that instantiate the characteristics of each type of agent and (iii) agent containers that can be described on several scales. The classification that appears is characterized by the triviality of the categories obtained. It resembles natural partitioning, which lends it certain robustness, facilitating its extension. The essentially transitory nature of the construction is discussed, together with its dependence on the formalisms used. The current model, built on a combination of eight case studies, appears to be sufficiently robust to address new aspects and to serve as a basis for the further construction of an integrated view of the complex dynamics associated here with rodents.

Area 4 - Application Domains

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Policy Analysis with Simulation: Centralization of Blood Supply Chain

Authors:

Burcu Cansu Inanc, Niousha Karimi Dastjerd, Emre Anıl Kakillioğlu and Nilgün Fescioğlu Ünver

Abstract: Incessant increase of human population and environmental factors increase patients’ need for blood, so research on this topic is a crucial necessity. A blood supply chain starts with the donation of blood and ends with transfusion to patient, and configuring blood supply chains as a whole has become a major requirement. In this research, blood supply chain system centralization and decentralization policies are compared for a specific setting in Turkey. Effects of these policies on performance measures like number of expired blood products in regional blood bank and, in each hospital and total cost of the blood supply chain system are observed using simulation modeling. Results show that under the given conditions the best policy is maintaining a decentralized blood supply policy which leads to a lower blood expiration rate and lower total cost.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Learning from Simulated World - Surrogates Construction with Deep Neural Network

Authors:

Zong-De Jian, Hung-Jui Chang, Tsan-sheng Hsu and Da-Wei Wang

Abstract: The deep learning approach has been applied to many domains with success. We use deep learning to construct the surrogate function to speed up simulation based optimization in epidemiology. The simulator is an agent-based stochastic model for influenza and the optimization problem is to find vaccination strategy to minimize the number of infected cases. The optimizer is a genetic algorithm and the fitness function is the simulation program. The simulation is the bottleneck of the optimization process. An attempt to use the surrogate function with table lookup and interpolation was reported before. The preliminary results show that the surrogate constructed by deep learning approach outperforms the interpolation based one, as long as similar cases of the testing set have been available in the training set. The average of the absolute value of relative error is less than 0.7 percent, which is quite close to the intrinsic limitation of the stochastic variation of the simulation software 0.2 percent, and the rank coefficients are all above 0.99 for cases we studied. The vaccination strategy recommended is still to vaccine the school age children first which is consistent with the previous studies. The preliminary results are encouraging and it should be a worthy effort to use machine learning approach to explore the vast parameter space of simulation models in epidemiology.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Framework for Fair Comparisons of Underwater Vehicle Controllers - Showcasing the Robustness Properties of a Model-free Sliding Mode Controller Tuned with a Random-forest-based Bayesian Optimization Approach

Authors:

Musa Morena Marcusso Manhães, Sebastian A. Scherer, Luiz Ricardo Douat, Martin Voss and Thomas Rauschenbach

Abstract: Tasks with underwater vehicles present several challenges that include complex and hazardous environments, and unmodeled and/or unknown uncertainties. The setup of positioning controllers is therefore a difficult and laborious task and very often leads to suboptimal performance results on the field. This paper shows a framework for methodical evaluation and setup of dynamic positioning controllers for underwater vehicles with simulation-based optimization method using performance metrics. The proposed method can be configured to be mission specific and delivers a controller configuration that also allows a fair numerical comparison between control algorithms on similar scenarios.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Real-time HiL for Hydraulic Press Control Validation

Authors:

J. Rodríguez, C. Calleja, A. Pujana, I. Elorza and I. Azurmendi

Abstract: Hydraulic press control validation often competes for access time with other logistical and production needs. This can result in significant costs due to down times, longer delivery periods and sub-optimal control adjustments. Reduction of said costs has traditionally been pursued via some degree of virtual commissioning, i.e. control validation away from the press, via a model. All such models require a compromise between cost, fidelity and simulation time. Here, we present a case study in which we have achieved a low-cost, high-fidelity, real-time hydraulic press model, with a flexible methodology which allows model creation in parallel with the engineering stage, as well as easy model refinement and modification during the entire press lifecycle.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

Automatic Selection and Sequencing of Traps for Vibratory Feeders

Authors:

Simon Mathiesen and Lars-Peter Ellekilde

Abstract: Vibratory parts feeders with mechanical orienting devices are used extensively in the assembly automation industry. Even so, the design process is based on trial-and-error approaches and is largely manual. In this paper, a methodology is presented for automatic design of this type of feeder. The approach uses dynamic simulation for generating the necessary data for configuring a feeder with a sequence of mechanical orienting devices called traps, with the goal of reorienting all parts from a random to fixed orientation. Then, a fast algorithm for facilitating this configuration task automatically is developed from domain specific knowledge. Finally, the algorithm is validated on three industrial cases and its drawbacks and strengths are discussed in detail.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

A Comparative Study for Cost-Utility Analysis Methods: An Application to a Case Study on Multicomponent Vaccine against Meningococcal B Disease

Authors:

Paolo Landa, Elena Tànfani and Angela Testi

Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore and compare the results of application of three different modelling techniques used to perform Cost-utility Analysis in Health Economics and Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The three modelling techniques described are Decision Tree, Markov model and Discrete Event Simulation. For each of these modelling techniques was evaluated the introduction of a multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal vaccine. The preliminary cost-utility analysis herein developed considers societal perspective, and evaluates the impact of vaccination on Italian infants less than one year of age. The models validation and the Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) resulting from each technique are reported, in preliminary results each modelling technique gives different ICER, depending on the modelling technique.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Models of Models: The Symbiotic Relationship between Models and Wargames

Authors:

Vikram Mittal, Jeffrey B. Demarest, Kennon S. Gilliam and Robert L. Page

Abstract: Military planning uses wargames to model the processes and decisions of an operation. As these operations become increasingly complex, the wargames similarly become more complex. Complex wargames are difficult to design and execute. As such, computer-based modeling and simulation can aid the wargame development, ensuring smooth execution. In particular, computer-based modeling and simulation can develop and validate the processes, determine initial conditions, evaluate the rules, and aid in validation. In turn, the wargame can provide useful data that can be fed into detailed models that can provide quantitative analysis to decision-makers.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Applying Peg-in-Hole Actions with a Service Robot

Authors:

Stefan-Daniel Suvei, Leon Bodenhagen, Thomas Nicky Thulesen, Milad Jami and Norbert Krüger

Abstract: A general requirement for any service robot is to be flexible and capable of processing uncertainties, thus making it adaptable for multiple tasks. As a result, learning the appropriate action parameters for a specific action is a crucial task. The method presented in this paper is an incremental statistical learning method that takes into consideration the uncertainties and the contact forces to find the optimal parameter sets. The method is inspired by solutions available in industrial robotics and it uses a dynamic simulator and Kernel Density Estimation in order to find the parameter sets that lead to a successful Peg-in-Hole action. The solution obtained in the simulation is successfully tested on a real service robot.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Modelling Cyber Vulnerability using Epidemic Models

Authors:

Bao Nguyen

Abstract: This paper documents an epidemic model known as SIR (Susceptible – Infected – Removed units). We derive an approximated solution to the differential equations that define the SIR model. Unlike the exact SIR solution, the approximate solution is analytical and has a closed form expression. We use this approximate model as an inspiration to cyber defence. Such a model allows us to investigate the characteristics of the propagation of electronic viruses. That is, we can determine the number of susceptible units, the number of infected units and the number of removed units as a function of time. This information will eventually permit the defence to find ways to eradicate a virus attack and to show how viruses affect the defence effectiveness.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

The Factory Physics for the Scheduling: Application to Footwear Industry

Authors:

John Reyes, Darwin Aldas, Kevin Alvarez, Mario García and Mery Ruíz

Abstract: In this paper, an analysis is made of variables such as inventory in process, cycle time and rate of production of salable units proposed in the theory of constraints and applied in a case study in the manufacture of safety footwear. The methodology used to evaluate these parameters is an experimental design with application of Plant Physics laws in a simulation scenario with PROMODEL. The results reflect that the optimum quantities of production for a cycle of work are achieved by adding 8.1% to the rate units that can be sold per unit of time and reducing cycle time by 6.5%. It was determined that to produce a transfer batch the inventory in process for each order hour is equivalent to 64% of the total of the units programmed for production based on the maximum capacity of the manufacturing system.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

A MILP Approach for the Joint Simulation of Electric Control Reserve and Wholesale Markets

Authors:

Timo Breithaupt, Thomas Leveringhaus, Torsten Rendel and Lutz Hofmann

Abstract: A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach for the joint simulation of electric control reserve and electricity wholesale markets is described. This generation dispatch model extends an existing integrated grid and electricity market model covering the Continental European electric power system. By explicitly modelling the markets for primary and secondary control reserve, the model can reproduce the decisions of generating unit operators on which markets to get involved. Besides, the introduction of integrality conditions allows considering start-up costs and the calculus of generating units to pass through economically unattractive periods with low or even negative prices in order to avoid another start-up. Finally, the MILP approach allows to consider the fact that primary and secondary control reserves provision usually requires operation of the respective generating unit and to fully include storages into the optimization problem. In this paper, the generation dispatch model is described in detail, key assumptions are presented and the implementation status is explained.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

Impact of the Strictness and Cohesiveness of Management Feedback on Construction Workers' Safety Behavior: Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation

Authors:

Byungjoo Choi and SangHyun Lee

Abstract: Although workers’ unsafe behaviors are the main causes of accdients in construction projects, there is a noticable lack of research addressing the mechanisms of workers’ safety behavior. In this paper, an agent-based model that integrates the cognitive process of safety behavior and workers’ interactions with the environment—including coworkers, management, and site condition—has been constructed. Then, model experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the strictness and cohesiveness of management feedback on safety behavior. The results indicated that while the strictness has significant impacts on reducing workers’ unsafe behaviors, the impacts become limited in specific conditions; 1) lenient feedback in the modest-risk condition; 2) whole range of the strictness in the low-risk condition except for very strict feedback; and 3) very stict feedback in high-risk conditions. Also, it was found that construction managers should achieve at least a medium level of cohesiveness in feedback in order to prevent the negative impacts of the low cohesiveness of management feedback. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge on construction safety as well as simulation literature by developing the socio-cognitive process model of workers’ safety behavior that examines how the socio-cognitive process interacts with management and the site condition.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

A Methodology to Compare Different Co-simulation Interfaces: A Thermal Engineering Case Study

Authors:

Georg Engel, Ajay S. Chakkaravarthy and Gerald Schweiger

Abstract: A method is presented to compare different co-simulation interfaces and applied to a case study of thermal engineering. Different interfaces providing loose and strong coupling based on the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI), the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and a Component Object Model (COM) are compared with respect to user-friendliness and flexibility, computational costs and accuracy. The case study considered includes a compact thermal energy storage modelled in Trnsys and a heat sink modelled in Simulink. The implemented strong coupling scheme is a factor of 10 more accurate while a factor of almost 100 computationally more demanding than the loose coupling one.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

Computer and Mathematical Modelling of the Female Human Body: Determination of Mass-inertial Characteristics in Basic Body Positions

Authors:

Gergana Stefanova Nikolova, Vladimir Konstantinov Kotev and Daniel Marinov Dantchev

Abstract: The aim of the current article is: 1) to present 16-segmental biomechanical model of the female human body generated within a SolidWorks medium. 2) to determine the mass-inertial characteristics of the human body of the average Bulgarian female on the basis of the model. These parameters are needed in order to design wearable or rehabilitation robots and devices properly; 3) to verify the model via comparing its results for the segments of the body with analytical results from our previous investigation of these segments; 4) to predict the inertial properties of a human body in various body positions. The comparison performed between our model results and data reported in literature gives us confidence that this model could be reliably used to calculate these characteristics at random postures of the body.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

Energy Optimisation using Distance and Hop-based Transmission (DHBT) in Wireless Sensor Networks - Scheme and Simulation Analysis

Authors:

T. S. PradeepKumar, P. V. Krishna, M. S. Obaidat, V. Saritha and K. F. Hsiao

Abstract: Wireless Sensor networks operate in a low energy mode and consume less power. The ultimate challenge of a sensor node is to make the lifetime of the node increase by which the energy consumption is so minimal. This paper addresses a mechanism by which the distance between any source and destination nodes is used by the source nodes to decide whether transmission of the message to destination node must be multi-hop or direct transmission by simply boosting the node power. The network size and the topology are considered for determining the threshold value for the distance based on which the decision is made. The simulation results have shown that the proposed method, DHBT, can increase the lifetime of the sensor network by at least 130% when compared to the legacy systems.

Posters
Paper Nr: 67
Title:

A Multi-agent Approach to Smart Home Sensors for the Elderly based on an Open Hardware Architecture: A Model for Participatory Evaluation

Authors:

Katsumi Wasaki, Masaaki Niimura and Nobuhiro Shimoi

Abstract: In this position paper, we present the design and implementation of an in-home sensor agent as an Internet of Things (IoT) smart device system based on an open hardware architecture. This sensor agent is designed to be connected to a wireless network in the target individual’s home where it collects trigger information from various switches, motion detection sensors in the room, along with the pillow and bed. We began our study by conducting a complete requirement analysis to determine the functions required for the home sensors. Next, we examined the proposed system terms of its hardware and software requirements and fabricated working prototypes. Here, it should be noted that the hardware and software were designed to aggregate connections with various composite sensor devices in order to allow trigger collection and processing. Finally, we reviewed visualization techniques for displaying the analytical results of the monitoring under normal conditions and emergency situations.